the simplest quinone consisting of two carbonyl groups
attached by two ethylene bridges forming a six membered ring of carbon
atoms; a six membered ring of carbon atoms with oxo groups attached
to carbons 1 and 4 with hydrogen atoms attached to carbons 2,3,4 and 5
with double bonds between carbons 2 and 3 and between carbons 4 and 5.
Benzoquinone is an intermediate strength oxidizing agent. The pi bonds
of the carbonyl groups and the ethylene bridges are all conjugated. This
stabilizes semireduced radical intermediates and facilitates redox cycling.
a NADPH dependent enzyme which is part of the
sequence of synthesizing fatty acids.
one of several quinones present in extracts of the inner bark
of a tree known variably as pao-de-arco, ipe roxo and lapacho. The mixture
has been used traditionally as a broad spectrum antibacterial agent and
has more recently been found to possess antitumor and immune stimulating
a NADPH dependent enzyme which is part of the sequence
of the sequence in the synthesis of turpenes such as
squalene (a precursor of cholesterol) and ubiquinone.
an oncogene which inhibits or prevents apoptosis even
when otherwise effective triggers are activated.
BioElectric Vincent (BEV):
a health care program developed by Vincent a French hydrologist.
It consisted of the measurement of three parameters (acidity,
redox potential and conductivity) of three bodily fluids
(blood, urine and saliva). Various nutritional interventions
are applied to optimize the measured parameters. A wide variety
of diseases tend towards clinical remission as the parameters
drift back towards optimum.
a theory led by Albert Szent-Gyorgyi which considers living
proteins and other biomolecules to be semiconductors. The
ability to carry or transfer charges is considered essential
to the living state. Bioelectronics is also pertinent to
the physiologic control of oxidation and reduction. Failure
or inhibition of biological semiconductivity allows reductants
to accumulate improperly. These support activities essential
to cell growth and proliferation. The introduction of alpha-
keto-aldehydes enhances conductivity and inhibits proliferation.
a family of naturally occurring cyclic organic compounds, containing
aromatic rings; derivatives of flavone or coumarin. Bioflavonoids
usually have one or more hydroxyl groups attached to their aromatic
rings making such also classifiable as phenolic compounds. Like other
phenolic compounds bioflavonoids can serve as one electron reducers
of oxyradicals. Many bioflavonoids can function biochemically as
hydrogen carriers and thereby substitute for or support the function
of ascorbic acid.
biological electron transfer sequence (BETS):
an electron (e-) transport chain; any series of electron (e-)
or hydrogen atom [H] carriers; an electron or hydrogen atom
shuttle system; a cascade or orderly series of oxidation-
reduction reactions found in living things. BETS enable and
control the metabolism of reducing equivalents (e- and [H]).
The components / carriers of any BETS can be written in order
according to their relative position in the scheme. Stronger
reductants appear towards the left, and stronger oxidants
appear towards the right. The function of multistep oxido-
reductases can also be expressed as a BETS.
bio-oxidative medicine (BOM):
the science or practice of treating disease by the
administration of an oxidizing agent.
a dicyclic compound of heterocyclic rings each containing
two nitrogen atoms and several conjugated double bonds,
some of which are imines. This compound can accept two
hydrogen atoms to become dihydrobiopterin (BH2), and again two
more to become tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). The fully reduced form
is a cofactor for phenylalanine-4-monooxygenase which converts
phenylalanine to tyrosine by the addition of one atom of oxygen
from O2. The other oxygen atom is reduced to water by the addition
of 2 atoms of hydrogen supplied by BH4.
a reversible inhibitor of glutathione reductase. BCNU raises
the GSSG/GSH ratio. Since tumor growth is dependent upon the
presence of reduced thiols, BCNU is an effective cytostatic
bisulfide anion (HS-):
the conjugate base of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) after the
alkaline removal of one proton. Bisulfide can bind as a ligand
to numerous metalic cations such as copper, silver, and mercury.
It is useful in biochemical research as an inhibitor of certain
enzymes which utilize cationic metals in their active centers.
Inorganic sulfide binds to and deactivates cytochrome A and,
therefore, acts as a potent respiratory poison.
any ray or limb of a larger molecule which is covalently bound.
With respect to a bound radical, all of its electrons are
magnetically paired within the orbitals of the molecule.
British antilewisite (BAL):
a chelating agent having thiol groups as ligands useful to
detoxify arsenic cation (Ar+++) and other toxic metals.
an irreversible inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl--cysteine synthase.
BSO profoundly inhibits this first step in glutathione synthesis
and as such effectively depresses glutathione levels. BSO is
useful as a research tool to study the effects of glutathione
butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA):
2-tertiarybutyl-4-methoxyphenol; a monophenol used in food and
in research as a reductive antioxidant. Most phenoxyl radicals
(the oxidized form of a monophenol) tend to form adducts at
their 2,4, or 6 carbon positions. BHA is protected against
this at the 2 and 4 carbon atoms by the attached groups.
butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT):
4-methyl-2,6-tertiarybutyl phenol; a monophenol used in food
and in research as a reductive antioxidant. The number 2,4,and 6
carbon atoms in most phenols are likely to form adducts whenever
the parent molecule is oxidized. In BHT these sites are protected
against such reactions by alkyl groups which stereochemically
block these sensitive sites.